- Madhya Pradesh, with its large area, enjoys diverse climatic and soil conditions suitable for a broad range of agricultural Agriculture sector in Madhya Pradesh forms the backbone of its economy.
- It contributes almost one-fourth of the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) and is the main source of employment for over 65 percent of the population and constitutes about 60 – 75 percent of the rural income.
- The state is a large producer of soybean and wheat. Sharbati variety of famous wheat is grown in Sehore, Vidisha and Ashok Nagar districts, and in some parts of Bhopal and Hoshangabad.Madhya Pradesh leads in the production of gram, linseed, green pea, garlic and coriander.
- The state is also a major producer of linseed, mustard, sunflower and Agro-climatic diversity and topographical variations enable the state to grow a wide range of cereals, pulses, oilseeds and cash crops, besides being home to myriad varieties of plant species, both in forest areas and outside. Various tropical fruits and vegetables and spices like coriander, chili and garlic are also widely grown.
- Areas under cultivation of safflower and sunflower are also expanding.
- Canals contribute 51%, well and tube wells 42.56%, other sources 9.73% and tanks a mere 1.38%
- Soils of Madhya Pradesh vary as per the structure, colour, texture and composition in the different Madhya Pradesh is that part of the peninsular plateau of India where residual soils are found in an extensive area.
- The rock formation determines the soil stwructure and composition in this state. As a result of this organic materials are found at a large scale in In this state the problem of soil erosion is almost negligible but due to excessive use of the land, the problem of soil erosion is accelerating.
- Madhya Pradesh comprises of a variety of soils ranging from rich clayey to According to the survey done in the state, the major groups of soils found in the state can be divided into f ive major categories namely:
- Alluvial Soil
- Black Soil or Regur Soil (medium and deep black, shallow and medium black, mixed red and black coloured)
- Clayey Soil
- Mixed Soil
- Red and Yellow Soil
Divided into two meteorological sub divisions (East and West MP), MP had 997.3 mm rainfall, 6% above normal. West MP, with 31 districts had 970.9 mm rainfall, 13 % above normal. Here 5 districts had Deficit, 11 had normal and 15 districts had Excess rainfall. Sehore had the highest rainfall at 1429.4 mm, 37% above normal. Bhind had the lowest rainfall at 432.6 mm, 32% below normal.
With 20 districts, East MP had 1031.6 mm rainfall, -2% below normal. Two districts each had Excess and Deficit rainfall, remaining 16 districts have Normal rainfall. Chhindwara had the highest rainfall at 1360.11 mm, 36% above normal. Chhattarpur district had low rainfall at 720 mm, 24 % below normal and Tikamgarh district had the lowest at 709.9 mm, 20% below normal, both from Bundelkhand region.
It has a subtropical climate. Hot dry summer extends from April to June followed by monsoon from July to September and winter months (November to February) are cool and relatively dry. The average rainfall is about 1,370 mm and it decreases from east to west. Summer mean maximum temperature rises to about 42.5 deg C in northern parts and the average temperature during winters is as low as 10 Deg C again in the north while it varies from 10 – 15 deg C in the south. (Source: Gosain et al in Climate Change in Madhya Pradesh: A Compendium of Expert Views – II)
Madhya Pradesh consists largely of a plateau streaked with the hill ranges of the Vindhyas and the Satpuras with the Chattisgarh plains to the east. For the sake of convenience Madhya Pradesh is divided into 7 Physiographic divisions which are mentioned below:
- Malwa Plateau
- Plateau of Madhya Bharat
- Bundelkhand Plateau
- Rewa Panna Plateau
- Narmada-Son valley
- Satpura Maikal Range
- Baghelkhand Plateau
With the Vindhyachal and Satpuda ranges stretching through, almost the entire land mass of the state with few exceptions (lashkar plain in north, Narmada valley in south west and patches in north west) lay on a number of plateaus and hills (Kanjarda, Sondwara, Umatwara, Shivpuri, Sagar, Rewa, Chindwara and Betul Plateau and Barwani hills). Resultantly number of rivers originates from these uplands draining ultimately into neighboring states.
West flowing river Narmada (in association with the north and north east flowing river Son) utilizes the rift valley between the Vindhyan and the Satpuda range to bifurcate the state into north – south halves. Tapi, another west flowing river, with small catchment in the state also flows in a rift valley. This is explained below.
Forests cover around 95,221 sq kms area of the state. This area has been classified into ‘Reserved Forest’, ‘Protected Forest’ and ‘Unclassified Forest’. Variability in climatic conditions brings about significant difference in the forest types of the state. There are four important types of forests namely Tropical Moist, Tropical Dry, Tropical Thorn, and Subtropical broadleaved Hill forests. The forest area can also be classified on the basis of composition of forest terrains. Based on composition, there are three important forest formations namely Teak forest, Sal forest and miscellaneous Forests. Bamboo bearing areas are widely distributed in the state of Madhya Pradesh.
Central, southern and eastern parts of Madhya Pradesh are rich in forests, while western and northern parts are comparatively deficient in forest.
Forests play a crucial role as river nurseries (most origins lay there) and house of springs that feed the rivers, the year round. The health of springs is key to river base flows in lean season, since devoid of high hills and glacial melt (as is true in the case of Himalayan rivers), rivers are fed by their forested catchments.
Madhya Pradesh has diverse hydrogeological characteristics resulting into varied water potential at different places. More than 80% of the total land area of the state is covered by variety of hard rocks varying in geological structures, geomorphological set up and hydro meteorological conditions.
More than 90% of the rural and 50% of Urban population is dependent on ground water sources in the state. Ground water is being the major source of irrigation. According to ground water report submitted in 2013 about 6,714,300 hectare of land is irrigated through ground water. There are reports about declining Ground water levels throughout the state. Ground water has also proved to be an important resource to meet the rapidly expanding demand of drinking water.
Satpura Range and Vindhya Range of Madhya Pradesh are source of most of the rivers in central India, Narmada River is known as Life Line of Madhya Pradesh, rises from Amarkantak along with sone river. Here is the list of major rivers of Madhya Pradesh flowing and originates from the state.
- Narmada River also known as Life Line of Madhya Pradesh, rises from Amarkantak Plateau andflows westward between the Satpura and Vindhya ranges.
- River Narmada is one of the most cleanest river of India and also longest west flowing river over a length of 1,312 km, draining into the Arabian Sea at the Gulf of Khambhat in Gujarat.
- Shipra River rises in Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, flows across the Malwa Plateau and join the Chambal River at the boundary of Rajasthan. It is one of the seven sacred rivers of India, the holy city of Ujjain is situated on the bank of Shipra and Kumbh Mela takes place on the bank of the river in Ujjain city.
- Chambal River originates near the slope of the Vindhya Range in Madhya Pradesh near Mhow, formingthe boundary between Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. It is the largest tributary of the Yamuna river, join the Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh state.
- Betwa River rises in the Vindhya Range of Madhya Pradesh near Hoshangabad and flows through Orchha in Madhya Pradesh to Uttar Pradesh, later joins Yamuna river.
- Orchha town lies on the Betwa River, Now the river is being linked with the Ken River.
- Son River also originates from Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh and flows north-northwest through Shahdol district in Madhya Pradesh. Sone River is the second-largest tributary of the Ganges after Yamuna and merges with the holiest river Ganges near Patna.
- Kali Sindh
- Kali Sindh River is a tributary of Chambal river and biggest river flowing in the Malwa region of Madhya The river rises in the Vindhya Range near Dewas district and flows 405 kilometers in Madhya Pradesh and joins the Chambal River in Kota district of Rajasthan.
- Sindh River originates on the Malwa Plateau in Vidisha district of Madhya Pradesh and flows through the Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh state to join the Yamuna river. The Sindh river passes through the Karera Sanctuary and known for Manikheda Dam and Mohini Sagar in Shivpuri district.
- Tapti River also flows westwards, draining into the Arabian Sea near Surat. The river originates near Multai forest in Madhya Pradesh and a river of central India that flows between the Godavari and Narmada river.
- Tawa River is the longest tributary of the Narmada River, Bori Wildlife Sanctuary is bounded by the Satpura National Park and by the Tawa river. The river rises in the Satpura Range of Betul Kenand joins the Narmada in Hoshangabad district.
- Ken River is one of the most beautiful river of Madhya Pradesh, a tributary of the Yamuna and major river of the Bundelkhand region. The river originates in Katni district, passes through Panna National Park and house a natural waterfall called Raneh Falls along with 100 deep grand canyon of Madhya Pradesh.
- Mahi River rises in Madhya Pradesh and one of the one few west-flowing rivers of India along with Narmada River, Tapti River, Sabarmati River and Kali river. The river Mahi flows through the region of Rajasthan, Gujarat and meet the Arabian Sea.
- Wainganga River originates at Mahadev hills in Seoni district, A key tributary of the Pench River is a tributary of the Kanhan River and Kanhan River is an important right bank tributary of the Wainganga River.
- Pench originates in the Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh and separates Pench National Park intotwo Kanhan River also originates from Madhya Pradesh, flows across Pench National Park and run through the Indian States of Maharashtra & Madhya Pradesh.
Aravali Mountains Aravali Mountain Range
- The Aravalli Mountains are located in the north-western region of Malwa. The slopes of these mountains are very sharp and the ends are flat.
- The Aravalli Mountains Are Considered to be the oldest mountain range on Earth. It extends in north south directions from near Delhi to Ahmedabad in Gujarat for a length of 800 km. Near Delhi, it is known as the hills of Delhi.
- The highest peak of this mountain is Abu Peak which is 1158 meters high.
- The Vindhyachal mountain ranges north of the Narmada river from east to west.
- Its construction is believed to be before the Himalayas.
- The average height of Vindhyachal mountain ranges from 457 meters to 610 But its highest peak is Amarkantak, whose height is more than 900 meters.
- Vindhyachal mountain is made of quartz and sand Narmada Son Ken and Betwa are prominent among the rivers originating from it.
- This mountain is formed from granite and basalt rocks.
- Its extension in the state is 1120 km in length parallel to Vindhyachal in the south of Narmada Son river.
- Formerly it starts from the hills of Rajpeepla spans the Western Ghats in the east.
- The mountain 700 meters in 1350 is higher by meter, but its highest peak Dhupgdh 1350 meters is, which is located on Mahadev Mountain near Pachmarhi. Pachmarhi, the only hill station of the state, is situated onthe Mahadev range of this mountain.
Mackle-Amarkantak Range Mackle Amarkantak Mountains
- The south-eastern extension of the Satpura range is called the Maikal-Amarkantak It is made up of sandstone,quartz and sedimentary rocks.
- Its expansion is in Shahdol, Mandla, and Dindori districts of the state. The Narmada river originates from this region.
Mahadev Category Mahadev Parvat Shreni
- The Mahadev range is the eastern extension of the Satpura mountain range.
- Its expansion in the state is in Chhindwara, Narsinghpur, Seoni, and Hoshangabad districts.
- It is made up of sandstone and quartz rocks.
- The famous tourist places of the state, Pachmarhi and Dhupgarh are located on this Tropical forestsare widely found here
Kymore Bhander Shreni
- The eastern extension of the Vindhyachal Mountains, located on the eastern side of the Narmada river, is known as the Kaimur-Bhander ranges.
- They are made of sandstone and quartz rocks.
- Their average altitude is between 450-600 meters.
- It is the water divider of Yamuna and Son rivers.
- Its expansion in the state is in Sidhi, Satna, Rewa, Panna, and Chhatarpur districts.
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