CHAUSATH Yogini Temple
- Located in Morena district.
- The 64 Yogini temples are four in all over India two of them are in Madhya Pradesh and other two in Odisha.
- Circumference of the temples is 170 feet
- Built in 14th century the temple was used to give education on Maths astrology etc. using rays of the Sun.
- The temples were centre of astrology
- 64 rooms are there inside the temples.
- In Centre 1 Shivalinga is there
- Rain water harvesting method is there
- Our Parliament design is taken from this Temple Only.
Location: Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
Building Material: Granite
Built in & by: 10th Century; Kalachuri
- Goddess Durga and the 64 Yoginis.
- Yogini’ is a term that is used in Buddhism as well as in Hinduism and refers to a female practitioner of Yoga who is also an enlightened guide or guru. The term is also associated with the sacred feminine force, who is considered to be an incarnation of Goddess Parvati.
- These incarnations are believed to have taken the form of eight matrikas or of 64 Yoginis. There are a number of temples across the country, which are dedicated to this feminine principle, Chausath Yogini being one of them.
- The temple is located on a hill which is about 100 feet (30 m) in height and there are 108 steps to climb leading to the entrance of the temple.
- Standing on a lofty (5.4 m.high) platform, it is an open-air quadrangular (31- 4m x 18.3m) structure of sixty-seven peripheral shrines, of which only thirty-five have now survived.
- The shrines are tiny plain cells, each entered by a small doorway and roofed by a curvilinear sikhara of an elementary form. The shrine in the back wall, facing the entrance, is the largest and perhaps constituted the main shrine.
- A few simple mouldings on the façade are all the decoration that the temple displays, but in spite of its uncouth appearance and rugged bareness, it possesses an elemental strength and reveals some basic traits of Khajuraho style, such as a lofty platform and a jangha (wall) divided into two registers.
- The temple consists of a circular peripheral wall which shows different courses of constructions in different times. The topmost course of the wall, composed of bricks and limestone, was the addition during the conservation activities taken up by the Gwalior Archaeological On this outer wall are placed various small niches, at regular intervals, many of which are empty now and few are equipped with couples in different poses.
- It is externally circular in shape with a radius of 170 feet (52 m) and within its interior part it has 64 small chambers, each with a mandapa which is open and a facia of pilasters and pillars.
- The roof of the entire structure is flat including that of another east facing circular temple within the outer circular wall.
- A large passage or courtyard lies between the outer enclosure and the central temple which is dedicated to Lord Shiva. There is an open porch entrance tothis temple. The exterior surface of the outer wall has carvings of Hindu deities.
- Within the main central shrine there are slab coverings which have perforations in them to drain rainwater to a large underground storage. The pipe lines from the roof lead the rain water to the storage are also Visible.
- The design of the temple has withstood earthquake shocks, without any damage to its circular structural features, in the past several centuries. The temple is in the Seismic Zone III.
- It is said that the temple was used to be a seat of education of astrology and mathematics with the use of the rays and shades of the sun.
- Dedicated to Lord Vishnu, the Chaturbhuj Temple in Orchha is an ancient architectural masterpiece built by King Madhukar during 1558-1573.
- The temple stands tall on a raised rectangular platform with basic architecture. It is divided into three main parts, and the central position of the temple is four-storey high.
- A large part of the temple remains unfurnished, which is a striking fact that makes it one of the interesting Orchha tourist places. It is believed that the temple was initially dedicated to Lord Ram.
- However, the Lord Rama idol in Rani Niwas refused to move to the temple, where the idol of Lord Vishnu with four arms established itself and gave the temple its identity.
- The palace is ornamented with lotus emblems and symbols of religious importance.
- For the longest time, the inscription at Chaturbhuj temple was also considered to be the earliest recorded example of the usage of zero
- In 1891, however, French archaeologist Adhemard Leclere discovered a dot in a set ofscript, referring to zero, carved in a sandstone surface at the Trapang Prei archaeological site in northeastern Cambodia’s Kratie province.
- Located in Bhojpur village of Bhopal district.
- The temple was built by the famous Raja Bhoj between 1010 E. and 1055 C.E.z
- This 12th century temple is not only one of the finest in the region, it also offers a unique insight into the construction process of the era.
- At its core is the abstract representation of the deity Shiva, or ‘linga’, in the temple It’s 2.35 metres high with a circumference of nearly 6 metres.
- Above it is an ornately-carved ceiling with rock-carved sculptures.
- Incomplete temple of Lord Shiva also known as Somnath of the East
- Shivalinga is very large incarnated in Silver.
- Another archaeological site nearby that is worth visiting is Ashapuri. This temple complex was built between the 9th and 11th centuries and consists of 24 temple bases withthousands of architectural fragments scattered around the hills.
- Ashapuri is considered to be one of the most remarkable medieval temple complexes in Central India and there’s currently a lot of work taking place to restore it.
- Temple stand on 4 pillars on every pillar there are idols.
- On Pillars- Shiv-Parvati, Lakshmi-Narayan, Brahma-Savitri and Siya-Ram is incarnated.
- Nearby River- Betwa
- The temples at Khajuraho were built during the Chandella dynasty, which reachedits apogee between 950 and 1050.
- Only about 20 temples remain; they fall into three distinct groups and belong to twodifferent religions – Hinduism and Jainism.
- They strike a perfect balance between architecture and sculpture. The Temple of Kandariya is decorated with a profusion of sculptures that are among the greatest masterpieces of Indian art.
- Famous for its Nagara-Style architecture and graceful sculptures of nayikas and deities.
- The temples are famous for its craftsmanship that consist of splendid demonstrations of fine sculptures and exceptional architectural skill.
- These temples are divided into three groups: Eastern, Western and Southern.
- This wondrous heritage town is encircled with the Vindhya Mountain Ranges to make it even more delightful.
- Of the 85 original temples, 22 have survived till today to constitute one of the world’s great artistic wonders.
- The temples of Khajuraho are India’s unique gift to the world, representing, as they do, a paean to life, to love, to joy, perfect in execution and sublime in expression.
- The erotic sculptures in these temples are among the finest ones in the world that depict passion in a spellbinding manner. These temples also feature sculptures that portray the symbolic values and daily life in ancient Indian culture.
- The Kandariya Mahadeva Temple is the largest and the most famous one among the surviving temples. It is adorned with innumerable sculptures exhibiting intricate details that mirror the richness of ancient Indian architecture.
- These temples were also the target of Sikandar Lodi’s drive in the 15th-century to destroy Hindu temples.
- After a long period of destruction and neglect, the temples at Khajuraho were rediscovered by T.S. Burt, a British surveyor, in the 1830s. Since then, the temples have gained popularity among travelers from all around the world.
- Another characteristic feature of these temples is that the sculptures are arrangedin symmetric repeating arrangements, even though every image is unique.
- Highly ornate carvings adorn the walls, pillars, ceilings of these temples. Several panels and sculptures in these temples have inscriptions. Barring one, every temple at Khajuraho faces the east and has an entrance in this direction.
- Khajuraho is counted among the four holy sites connected to Lord The other places are Kashi, Kedarnath, and Gaya.
- ‘The Matangeshwara temple in Khajuraho is an active place of worship even today.
- The Bhand Deva Temple in Rajasthan, constructed in the 10th-century, depicts the style of the Khajuraho So, it’s known as Little Khajuraho.
- The Kandariya Mahadev temple at Khajuraho is the most visited shrine there and hasmore than 870 sculptures adoring it.
- Other notable temples at the site include the single-towered Caturbhuja and Vamana, the squat Matulunga, and the rectangular, more austere Parshvanatha Jain temple with its unique shrine added to the rear of the building (c. 950-970 CE).
- The Kandariya Mahadeo temple is perhaps the most eye-catching building at Khajuraho and it is certainly the largest.
- Built around 1025 CE during the reign of Vidyadhara (r. 1004-1035 CE), the temple is an excellent example of the fully-developed North Indian temple design.
- The exterior has a spectacular series of towers (sikharas) which progressively reach higher from the entrance to the tallest sikhara (31 metres) above the temple’s sacred shrine (garbhagriha) at the rear.
- The main sikhara is also surrounded by quarter and half-sikharas and is topped with a large amalaka – a ribbed circular stone.
- Thus the building appears like a mountain range of diverse peaks, a deliberate intention by the architect as Hindu temples were representative of the Himalayas and the ‘world mountain’, an effect which would have only been accentuated by its original white gesso coating, now lost.
- Oriented to the east and laid out in a double-cross plan, the temple is built on a high platform base which is accessed by a flight of steps leading to a series of porches.
- The main porch, or mandapa, has interior polygonal columns with sculpted figurebrackets which support a corbelled dome.
- The whole carries gavakshas – double curved arches. The interior garbhagriha is semi- circular and flanked by passages which lead to exterior balconies with stone awnings.
- The Kandariya Mahadeo temple is richly decorated with sculpture; 646 figures on the exterior and 226 inside the building. The majority of figures are a little under one metre tall and arranged in two or three tiers. They are predominantly figures of Shiva and other Hindu deities such as Vishnu, Brahma, Ganesha, along with attendants, surasundaris (celestial maidens), and mithuna (lover) figures.
- Probably the latest temple at Khajuraho is the Duladeo which was built on a star-plan.
- The Duladeo Temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva, who is worshipped in the form of a shivalinga here. The temple is believed to be the youngest of the Khajuraho temples, andthe last temple built during the reign of Chandela dynasty.
- Built between 1000 and 1150 AD, Duladeo Temple is not as ornate as the Khajuraho temples that were built earlier.
- The temple is categorised as a ‘norandhara’ temple, which means it is a temple with no ambulatory path. Duladeo temple is built using Nagara style of architecture, representing Mount Kailash which is the abode of Lord Shiva.
- The main hall of the temple is huge and is in the shape of an . The ceiling is carved with elegant images of apsaras (celestial dancers).
- The pillars and walls of the temple have figures and sculptures of women inerotic poses, and of damsels dancing around the trees.
- The Duladeo temple is believed to be the “last glow of Khajuraho’s architectural and sculptural mastery”.
- An interesting feature of the temple is that it has 999 lingas carved on the surface of the shivalinga that is sanctified.
Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho
- This striking temple stands facing the Varaha and Devi mandaps. lt is one of the.three largest temples of Khajuraho and the Western Group and is considered to be the earliest (c. AD 954) to have been built by the Chandella rulers.
- The temple faces the east and is dedicated to Vishnu, by a rather inappropriate name of Lakshman, the brother of Ram, the hero king ofthe epic poem Ramayana.
- The lakshman Temple stands like a gaint mountain of stone at the centre, and is unique in khajuraho for its four subsidiary shrines at the four corners of its rectangular Each Subsidairy shrine has a little porch, band of scultpure along the esterior wall.
- The large erotic sculptures adorning the main body of the temple are placed, as in all the other temples in Khajuraho, on the south and north sides, between the two
- On the south side (also seen from the staircase of the Matangeshvar Temple) the top panel depicts a bearded god, identified as Agni; beneath is the figure of the divine bridegroom walking in procession accompanied by
- The temple has only one entrance on the east side, Set at the top of the stairs. The porch hasa pretty toran or stone garland above the enttance. Cemented along the porch wall is the Challdella stone inscription found in the vicinity of tlhe
- The inscription, written in AD 954, records that Yashovarman, the seventh Chandella ruler, constructed a temple to Vishnu and was succeeded by his son Dhangadeva. It is therefore assumed that Lakshman Temple was built just before AD 954
- City in Madhya Pradesh located near Indore
- Fort in Maheshwar built by Rani Ahilyabai Holkar (Husband- Khanderao Holkar (death in Battle of Kuber) Father-in-law- Malhar Rao Holkar (death after 12 years of son’s death)
- Rani Ahilyabai shifted capital from Indore to Maheshwar
- The Fort is located near the bank of river Narmada.
- Fort is built in Vada architecture of Maratha
- The rule tenure was from 1767 to 1795 of Rani Ahilyabai Holkar
- Rani Ahilyabai Holkar using her on rupees of 16 crore at that time she constructed many Ghats and temples throughout the India.
- At the time of court she was sitting with small Shivlinga in her hand on the throne.
- There is Shiva temple in Maheshwar built by Maharani Ahilyabai Holkar.
- Udaygiri mean the mountain of the sunrise, a historical Hindu ritual site home to twentyrock- cut caves
- Vishnu Padagiri is the otherwise known name of the place meaning “the feet of Vishnu”.
- The Jain cave is notable for one of the oldest known Jaina inscriptions from 425 CE, while the Hindu Caves feature inscriptions from 401 CE
- Udayagiri caves contain iconography of Vaishnavism (Vishnu), Shaktism (Durga and Matrikas) and Shaivism (Shiva).
- If the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the group of monuments of Sanchi stands as avirtual timeline of Buddhism in India, the Udayagiri Caves near the ancient city of Vidisha are believed to be the home of the oldest known forms of Hindu iconography.
- The caves of Udaigiri are an exquisite illustration of the local art form.
- These were established by Chandragupta Vikramaditya, after defeating Shakas in the 4th and 5th centuries.
- The primary motive behind the construction of these caves and the establishment of sculptures of different deities clearly seems promotion of Jainism among the common folk.
- There are in total 20 caves out of which two are related to Jainism and the remainingeighteen to Hinduism directly.
- On the top of the caves remains of the Mauryan, Shunga, and Naga dynasties havebeen found, which also includes Buddhist Stupas.”
- Caves of 5th century C.
- Middle of Betwa and Bes river.
- 20 temples are situated here.
- Many idols of Maa Durga is also on the walls.
- Cave number 20 is dedicated to Jainism
- Cave 5, also known as the Varaha Cave, depicts Vishnu in a massive carving as Varaha (boar) incarnation and rescuing goddess Earth (Bhudevi, Prithivi) from the depths ofcosmic ocean.
- Varaha, as embedded in Hindu text, is a symbol of right versus wrong and good versus evil.
Lord Varaha rescuing Bhudevi
Rishis wearing bark of trees and carrying water pot
- The doorway of Cave 6 has ornately carved figures of Ganesha, Vishnu and Shiva Gangadhara on the left and Brahma, Vishnu and Shakti Durga as Mahishasur Mardini on the right.
Lord Ganesha on the wall of Cave 18
- In addition to these, Udayagiri has a series of rock-shelters and petroglyphs, buildings, inscriptions, water systems, fortifications and habitation mounds, all of which remain asubject of continuing archaeological studies.
- Located near Bhopal in Vindhya Ranges.
- One of the oldest stone structures in India.
- Built by Emperor Ashoka in 3rd Century B.C.
- Bones of Bhagvan Buddha had been buried here.
- First Ashoka built it using bricks and sand then after 200 years King Agnimitra (Sungha Dynasty) added stones over it.
- Motive was to protect bones forever.
- Sagun Vedika– Stones were cut down in slabs like structure and made as string of pearls.
- On the four corners of stupa, Jataka stories has been erected on wall.
- Apart from main stupa, two other small stupas are there.
- The paved procession path around it has become smooth by centuries of pilgrim’s visit.
- The last of the additions to this remarkable stupa are the elaborate and richly carved four gateways or Toranas.
- Also some improvements had been made by Parmar dynasty in 8th century.
- It was like Buddhism Gurukul at that time.
- John Marshall excavated it in 1912 after longer period.
- It is in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
- The Southern Gateway: Reveals the birth of Gautum in a series of dramaticallyrich The southern Gateway: crowned by a wheel of law, illustrates the miracle associated with the Buddha as told in the Jataka tales.
- The Eastern Gateway, depicts the young prince, Gautam, leaving his father’s place, renouncing worldly life to seek enlightenment
- The inner face of the right pillar portrays the dream of Maya, the mother of Buddha, when she conceived him.
- The Western Gateway depicts the Seven incarnations of the Buddha, four represented bytrees and three by stupas; the Buddha preaching his first sermon at the Deer Park, Sarnath and the Chhaddanta Jataka tale.
- Also called Vijaya Mandir
- Made by the Chalukya (Solanki) Dynasty [8th Century] and then by Paramara Dynasty [11th Century]
- Some historical documents suggest that the foundation of this temple was laid by Vachaspati, who was probably the Pant Pradhan of the Chaulukya dynasty and then finished by successive Paramaras.
- The temple is currently in ruins but it still is an important place
- Nearby is another site, much smaller, that is worth visiting. It is the Heliodorus Pillar, a stone column erected around 150 BC by a Greek man who was an ambassador in Vidisha.
- An inscription found on the pillar names Maharaja Naravarman of the Paramara dynasty as one of its builders. It is however unclear when and by whom the temple was commissioned and when it was actually completed.
- The original temple was believed to be dedicated to Devi Vijaya Rani which then came to be called Bija Mandal.
- Locals say the Vijaya Rani Bhavya Mandir had a beautiful idol of the eight-armed Goddess Charchika Mata. It was perhaps at this time that the traditional worship of Naga Devata began on the auspicious occasion of Naga Panchami.
- The original temple is said to have had an imposing shikhara of great height that could be visible for miles. The entire complex was almost half a mile long and wide and its height was 96 metres. The temple had wide steps on three sides and was seated on a high plinth.
- A court record of Al-Biruni who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni on his barbaric invasions of Bharat reveals that the latter after desecrating Somnath headed to Vidisha to reduce the grandest temple of the 9th – 10th century to rubble. He succeeded to some extent but the temple was rebuilt by the Paramara kings after his departure from Bharat.
- Next, came the successive Muslim savages in the form of Shams ud-Din Iltutmish in 1234 followed by Alauddin Khilji in 1293, Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah of the Gujarat Sultanate in the 16th century and finally the most radical Islamic ruler of Akhanda Bharat, Aurangzeb in 1682.
- Aurangzeb’s religious fanaticism designed to dazzle Mahomedan orthodoxy led him to completely destroy the majestic temple complex. Special cannons were used to pulverize the temple structure from every corner. He then proceeded to level the foundation walls and structure and built a raised platform over it. He built the Alamgiri mosque over the ruins and renamed the city Alamgiripur.
- Historical documentation describes the celebrations and festivities that followed his “triumphant” destruction of the famed Vijaya Mandir.
- The Bijamandal mosque was built with the decorative pillars, pilasters and lintels that have the typical Paramara style of architectural detailing. Many have Sanskrit inscriptions.
- Archaeological excavations conducted in the 1970s brought to light a massive 2 metre high adhishtana with seven steps on the southern side, structural members, broken sculptures, carved panels and inscribed slabs.
- Some of the sculptures are as high as 8 feet with the most noteworthy being that of Mahishasura Mardini, eight-armed Lord Ganesha, dancing women, musicians, dancing Sapta Matrikas, Lord Shiva and Parvati Devi with Nandi Bhagawan seated at his feet, Gajalakshmi, Lord Narayana and Lakshmi Devi and others.
- The vast pavilion made of stone had a temple dedicated to Surya Bhagawan as per an inscription found among the debris that also has innumerable defaced carved figures, ornate brackets, fragments of gateways, broken pillars and An ancient stepwell to the north of the temple has exquisitely carved pillars of the 8th century and scenes of Krishna Leela on its sides.
- Beeja Mandal is now an inspiration for the architects of the Central Vista Project
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