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Physiography Environment & Geomorphologically Uttar Pradesh

Physiography Environment of Uttar Pradesh


  • Uttar Pradesh is situated between 23°52’N and 31°28’N latitudes and 77°3′ and 84°39’E longitudes.
  • It shares its national boundaries with 9 other states i.e., Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana on the north west; Uttarakhand in the north; Rajasthan touches P. from the west; Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh on the south; Jharkhand to the south-east & Bihar lies in its east.
  • Internationally P. is landlocked by Nepal on the north. With an area of 29.4 m ha it is the fourth largest state in Indian subcontinent.
  • It is also the most populous State.


Geomorphologically Uttar Pradesh can be divided into 3 major topographical regions:

Siwalik foothills of Himalayas and the Terai region border U.P. on the north. Gangetic plains constitute the major central portion of the state.

Vindhya Range and plateau lie in a relatively smaller part of southern U.P.



Siwalik Range forms the southern foothills of the Himalayas which border U.P. on the north. The lowland area dispersed with marshes, thick forests, swamps rich in clay and tall grasslands that runs parallel to the bhabhar tract is called Terai region. This area is composed of fine alluvium primarily sand, clay, silt and gravel.

As the rivers flow down the slopes of Bhabhar and course through the relatively planar areas of Terai the sediments are deposited in shallow beds, and the sunken river streams of Bhabhar reemerge on the surface, causing massive floods.

Width of Bhabhar — 8-16 km

Width of Terai — 15-30 km



Gangetic plains are characterised by a flat topography and highly fertile alluvial soil. The two-river system called Ganges which includes Ganga and Yamuna and their tributaries, that flow down the Himalayas, is responsible for laying in alluvial deposits which make the soil of Gangetic plains highly fertile and suitable for growing crops like rice, wheat, barley, gram etc. These plains span about three-fourths of the total area of the state, stretching from east to west and covering most of its central portion.


Its flat topography comprises of several physical features like rivers, lakes, ponds, elevation ranging from 60 mts in the east to 300 mts in the north-west and a gradient of 2 m/sq km.

The Gangetic plains are constituted by the Ganga-Yamuna Doab, the Ganges plains, Terai and the Ghaghra plains; and this entire expanse of alluvial terrain is divided into three sub-regions: Eastern tract: The eastern tract of Gangetic plains is classified as scarcity region as it is often afflicted with famines and floods, and the agricultural lands of this region don’t receive adequate irrigation. A total of 14 districts fall under this tract.

Central tract: It is a well irrigated tract but suffers from water logging.

Western tract: This zone is well developed in terms of Agriculture because of excellent water resources and irrigation systems



Vindhyas are a discontinuous range of hills and mountains. The southernmost stratum of Gangetic plains in U.P. is rendered by hard and varied topography of hills, highlands and plateaus.

With an average elevation of 300 mts, this is a low-lying range that receives sparse rains and is devoid of adequate water resources, thus farmers in this region resort to dry-farming.

Following 4 divisions fall under the canopy of this region:

  • Bundelkhand plateau – Jhansi, Jalaun, Banda, Hamirpur
  • Tehsils of Allahabad district
  • Mirzapur district
  • Chakia Tehsil of Varanasi district




  • The state can be divided into two physiographic regions: the central plains of the Ganges (Ganga) River and its tributaries (part of the Indo-Gangetic Plain) and the southern uplands.
  • The vast majority of Uttar Pradesh lies within the Gangetic Plain, which is composed of alluvial deposits brought down from the Himalayas to the north by the vast Ganges Most of that area is a featureless, though fertile, plain varying in elevation from about 1,000 feet (300 metres) in the northwest to about 190 feet (60 metres) in the extreme east.
  • The southern uplands form part of the highly dissected and rugged Vindhya Range, which rises generally toward the The elevation of that region rarely exceeds 1,000 feet.



  • The state is well drained by a number of rivers originating in either the Himalayas to the north or the Vindhya Range to the south.
  • The Ganges and its main tributaries—the Yamuna, the Ramganga, the Gomati, the Ghaghara, and the Gandak rivers—are fed by the perpetual snows of the Himalayas. The Chambal, the Betwa, and the Ken, originating from the Vindhya Range, drain the southwestern part of the state before joining the Yamuna.
  • The Son, also originating in the Vindhya Range, drains the southeastern part of the state and joins the Ganges beyond the state borders (in Bihar).



  • Surface irrigation.
  • Drip irrigation.
  • Sprinkler irrigation.
  • Center pivot irrigation.
  • Lateral move irrigation.
  • Sub-irrigation.
  • Manual irrigation.



  • Much of the area of Uttar Pradesh is covered by a deep layer of alluvium spread by the slow- moving rivers of the Ganges system. Those extremely fertile alluvial soils range from sandy to clayey loam. The soils in the southern part of the state are generally mixed red and black or red-to-yellow.
Soil map of uttar pradesh
Soil map of uttar pradesh



A deep layer of Alluvium is deposited by the Ganges and its tributaries as they flow down the Himalayas.



  • There is no level land available and the terrain varies excessively in the Himalayan region.
  • Major soil forming rocks are: Granite, Schists, Gneiss, Shales, Sandstones, Phyllite, Quartzite, etc.
  • The soils in the greater Himalayas, the lesser Himalayas and Shiwaliks vary from sandy to loamy, are slightly acidic and of Low Available Water Capacity (AWC) type.
  • Crops like Wheat, Maize, Rice and Pulses are generally cultivated in these areas.




  • Soils develop from the Alluvium beds deposited by the Ganga, Yamuna and their tributaries in the vastb Gangetic plains.
  • The soils in this region are coarse loamy/fine loamy/fine silty (calcareous & non- calcareous). These feature slight alkalinity and exhibit deep soil depth as well as high content of organic matter, plant nutrients.
  • These have a good water holding capacity and are well
  • Wheat, Rice, sugarcane, gram, maize, sorghum, barley and pea are the major crops cultivated in the alluvial soil of Gangetic drained.
  • Soils of Vindhyachal Highlands and plateaus:
  • This region exhibits hilly terrain and arid conditions.
  • Soils in this region are generally developed from Vindhyan rocks that include gneiss, granites, sandstone, quartzite, limestone, dolomite etc.
  • The soil type is fine loamy with stoniness and gravelliness. The soils of this region possess mixed red and black hues.
  • These are slightly alkaline in nature, are excessively drained and Low Available Water Capacity (AWC).
  • The major crops planted in the region are – Wheat, sorghum, bajra, gram and arhar.



  • The climate of Uttar Pradesh is the tropical monsoon type, with warm weather year-round. Average high temperatures in Lucknow range from about 70 °F (low 20s C) in January to over 100 °F (38 °C) in May and June.
  • High temperatures of about 120 °F (50 °C) have been recorded at gonda, northwest of Faizabad .
  • Annual rainfall in the state ranges from 40–80 inches (1,000–2,000 mm) in the east to 24–40 inches (600–1,000 mm) in the west.
  • About 90 percent of the rainfall occurs during the southwest monsoon, lasting from about June to September.
  • With most of the rainfall concentrated during that four-month period, floods are a recurring problem and can cause fatalities and heavy damage to crops and property, particularly in the eastern part of the Periodic failure of monsoons results in drought conditions


Climate Type: Tropical monsoon or Humid subtropical with dry winters

Temperature range: 0℃ – 50℃



South-West Monsoon

Retreating Monsoon



Meteorological Subdivisions: U.P. East & U.P. West


Temperature range: 45℃ – 48℃

Span: March to May

Features: Hot & Dry, Dust laden storms, Low Relative Humidity



Temperature Range: 40℃ – 45℃

Span: June-September

Rainfall: 1279 mm (85%of average annual rainfall)



Temperature Range: 0℃ – 4℃

Span: October – February

Features: Foggy conditions

  • As Gangetic plains take up majority of area in the state, therefore climatic conditions are more or less uniform throughout the state, except for a few regional fluctuations.
  • For instance Western U.P. exhibits semi-arid/steppe climate due to low reception of precipitation.
  • Non-Uniform and unpredictable rainfall pattern causes recurrent droughts and floods in eastern tract.
  • Due to the effect of Western disturbances, light rainfall occurs in the months of october through december; it is termed as Retreating South-West Monsoon.



1.     TARAI ZONE:

  • The zone comprises Bijnore, Moradabad, Rampur, Bareilly, Pilibhit, Shahjahanpur, Lakhimpur, Bahraich, Shravasti and Some parts of the Saharanpur and Muzaffar Nagar The zone is characterized by alluvial and clayey alluvial soil which is rich in organic materials. The average annual rainfall in the zone is 1150 mm.



  • The zone consists of Bijnore, Moradabad, Jyoti-ba-phule Nagar, Rampur, Bareilly, Badaun and Pilibhit The zone is very fertile region with sandy & clayey soil and receives 700-1000mm annual rainfall.



  • The Saharanpur, Muzaffar Nagar, Meerut, Baghpat, Ghaziabad, Gautambudh Nagar and Bulandshahar districts are under this zone. The clayey-alluvial, alluvial, sandy alluvial and sandy are the main soil types and zone receives 600-965 mm annual rainfall.



  • This zone comprises Agra, Firozabad, Mainpur, Etawah, Aligarh and Mathura The soil of the zone is aravalli, sandy, sandy alluvial, alluvial and clayey type. The saline and sodic soils are also present at some places. The average rainfall of the zone is 700 mm.



  • The zone consists of Lucknow, Unnao, Raebareilly, Sitapur, Hardoi, Kanpur Nagar, Kanpur Dehat, Etawah, Kannauj. Farrukhabad, Auraiya, Allahabad, Kaushambi, Fatehpur and Shahjahanpur districts of the state. The saline and Sodic soil is the major problem of this zone. The average annual Rainfall is 850-900 mm.



  • The Jhansi, Lalitpur, Jalaun, Hamirpur, Mahoba, Chitrakoot and Banda districts fall under this zone. The soil type is mostly rocky. The average annual rainfall varies from 800 to 1000 mm.



  • This zone comprises Gonda, Baharaich, Balrampur, Shravasti, Gorakhpur, Maharajganj, Khusinagar, Siddarth nagar, Basti, Sant Kabir Nagar and Deoria The major soil types are sand alluvial, clayey alluvial and diara. The zone receives 1000-1200 mm annual precipitation.



  • The Barabanki, Faizabad, Ambedkarnagar, Sultanpur, Pratapgarh, Jaunpur, Azamgarh, Mau, Ballia, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Ghazipur, Banaras and Chandauli districts are under this zone. The sandy alluvial, clayey and sodic are the major soils of the zone. The zone receives 1000-1200 mm average rainfall whereas temperature varies from 420 C to 4.60C.



The zone consists of Mirzapur, Sonbhadra and Allahabad districts. The maximum area of the zone is undulated and rocky whereas soil of plain part of the zone is light black clay and red alluvial Average annual rainfall is 1100 mm and temperature ranges between 490 C and 30 C

Agro climatic Zone in U.P






  • Also known by the name, Sur Sarovar
  • The Agra Canal that starts from the Okhla Barrage found on Delhi’s Yamuna River supplies raw water to the Keetham Lake.



  • Keetham Lake is nicely nestled within the premises of Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary
  • The Forest Department of Uttar Pradesh declared Keetham Lake as a National Bird Sanctuary on 27th March 1991.
  • The Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary is surrounded by river belt of Yamuna River on all the sides.



Keetham Lake is in the shape of a pentagon. This lake is set up on a catchment area of Lots of migratory birds come here during particular seasons and take shelter in the artificial islands created here for breeding purposes.




  • The Barua Sagar Taal is a large artificial lake that was created more than 260 years ago by Raja Udit Singh, who just built the embankment.
  • It is located near Jhansi in Uttar Pradesh



The Barua Sagar Taal is located in the town of Barua Sagar in the district of Jhansi in Uttar Pradesh. It is a beautiful lake that is well connected to rest of the city.



The Barua Sagar Lake is an artificial lake and the town Barua Sagar has been named after this beautiful lake.




The Belasagar Lake is a large lake located in the village of Belatal in Uttar Pradesh

This lake serves as a source of irrigation in this part of the state and was built by Raja Parikshit in the loving memory of Bela, his wife.

Locally the lake is known is Bela Taal and is also a major source of drinking water for the people of the Kulpahar area.


The lake covers an area of about 8 sq. km and is a major source of irrigation and drinking water for the people of this region.




The Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar is named after Bharat Ratna Govind Ballabh Pant, the former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. He was an activist during the time of independence and even contributed for establishing Hindi as the national language.

This is the largest manmade reservoir situated in southern part of Sonebhadra and is the pride of Uttar Pradesh.

It is on the river Rihand a main tributary of Ganges. The river is around 784 kilometer long. The water stored in this dam is released on periodical basis onto River Son for irrigational necessities all through the year.

Sonebhadra is called the energy capital of India. It is responsible for generating over 10000MW of electricity and distributing it all over the North Indian States.



Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar is located around the southern part Sonebhadra, Uttar Pradesh.


The cities surrounding Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar are Singrauli, Wadranfnagar and Ambikapur. These areas have huge reserves of coal. Singrauli is one such prime area and is often referred as coal zone of India.





Shekha Jheel is a scenic lake located in a village named Shekha in Uttar Pradesh. It is a fresh water lake and a perennial one and bird watching is a popular activity here. The upper Ganges Canal flows adjacent to the lake.


The area of the lake is 25 hectare and is the perfect place for watching many migratory birds. It is a lake rich in biodiversity. There is also an irrigational canal along and this water body is major source of water for the nearby localities.




river information



  • Due to its varied climate and relief, Uttar Pradesh has a wealth of Flora and Fauna, adding to the abundance of natural resources in the state, despite widespread deforestation and poaching.



Forest Cover: 21720 sq km

Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests: Sal, Palas, Amaltas, Bel, fig etc. Neem, Peepal, Sheesham, Mango, Jamun, Babool, Imli (Tamarind) etc

Tropical Thorny Forests: Thorny trees, mainly, Babool, Thorny, legumes and Euphorias.

Other Common Plants: Rhododendrons, betula, silver fir, spruce, deodar, chir, oak, sal, gigantic haldu, dhak, teak, mahua, salai, sisso, chironji and tendu.

Medicinal Herbs: Rauwolfia Sarpagandha, Viala serpens, Podophyllum, hexandrum and aephecra gerardiana.

  • These plants are widely used in industries for various applications, for instance Bamboo is used predominantly in Paper industries, Babul is used to prepare the tanning material, Gutel and Semal are employed in matchwood industry, Kanju is a raw material for plywood industry.



  • Uttar Pradesh is replete with Avifauna (birds). Terrestrial animals, amphibians and reptiles are also found in abundance

State Animal: Barasingha or Swamp Deer

  • The antlers of these Stags are made up of 12 tines or sometimes upto 20 times.

Largest Wildlife Reserve: Dudhwa National Park (500 sq km)

  • It is situated in Lakhimpur Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh.
  • It is the only place in P. where both Tigers and Rhinos can be spotted together.

Most Common Birds: Crow, pigeon, dove, jungle fowl, black partridge, house sparrow, peafowl, blue jay, parakeet, kite, myna, quail, bulbul, snipe, comb duck, grey duck, whistling teal, kingfisher and woodpecker.

Terrestrial Animals: Tiger, leopard, wild bear, sloth bear, elephant, gond, para, chinkara, sand grouse, musk deer, brown bear, chital, sambhar, jackal, porcupine, jungle cat, hare, squirrel, monitor, lizard and fox.

Reptiles: Bamania, Lizard, Cobra, Krait, Crocodile, Pit-viper, Goh, Tortoise and Dhaman.

Aquatic Animals-Fishes: Mahaser, Saul, Parthan, Vittal, Mirgal, Labi, Cuchia, Einghi, Trout, Hilsa, Tengan, Rasela, Rohu, Kata, Mangur, Eel and Mirror Carp.

Endangered Species: Lions of the Gangetic plain and rhinoceros of the terai region Black buck, musk deer, swamp deer, four horned antelope and mural pheasants.



national Park Information



Located on the Chambal River near the tri-point of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Spread over the Agra and Etawah districts


Flora — Common plants in the sanctuary include khair (Mimosa catechu), palash(Ylame of the forest), churel (Indian elm tree), ber (Indian plum) and grassy patches on both sides of the river.

Fauna — Home to critically endangered gharial (small crocodiles), the red-crowned roof turtle and the endangered Ganges river dolphin.

Other Mammals include: Hanuman langur, rhesus macaque, golden jackal, common palm civet, Bengal fox, Indian small mongoose, Indian grey mongoose, wild boar, sambar, nilgai, jungle cat, blackbuck, Indian gazelle (chinkara), porcupine, northern palm squirrel, Indian Ylying fox, Indian hare and hedgehog.

(Gangetic dolphin: k )





Status — Critically Endangered (IUCN)


Characteristics —

  • Red-crowned roofed turtle’s shell can be as long as 56 cm and can weight upto 25 kg. In comparison to their female counterparts, the males are shorter and reach onlyhalf their Its head is moderate in size and has an obtuse and slightly prominent snout. The carapace of the species is strongly keeled and the plastron is angulated laterally in the young ones.
  • It is a freshwater turtle species, and found in deep flowing rivers with terrestrial nesting Diet of the species consists exclusively of water plants. Adult females lay 11 to 30 eggs in March and April.


Distribution —

Distribution map


Threats —

  • Loss or degradation of habitat due to pollution and large scale development activities like water extraction for human consumption and irrigation and iregular flow fromthe upstream dams and reservoirs.
  • Sand mining and growing of seasonal crops along Ganga River are majorly affecting the sandbars along the river that are used by the species for nesting.
  • Drowning by illegal fishing nets.
  • Poaching and illegal trade.





Status — Critically Endangered (IUCN)


Characteristics —

  • Gharial derives its name from ghara, an Indian word for pot because of a bulbous knob (narial excrescence) present at the end of their snout. The ghara also renders gharial the only visibly sexually dimorphic crocodilian.
  • The species are largely piscivorous of all extant crocodilians. Possession of a strongly attenuated snout and rows of uniform sharp teeth supported by a relatively long, well muscled neck makes it a most efficient fish catcher.


Habitat — Gharial prefers deep fast flowing rivers, however adult gharial have also been observed in still water branches (jheel) of rivers and in comparatively velocity-free aquatic environments of deepholes (kunds) at river bends and confluences. Smaller animals seem to conserve energy by resting out of the mainstream in sheltered backwaters, particularly during the monsoon (July-September). Sand and rock outcrops are preferred basking sites and these animals show considerable site fidelity.


Threats —

  • Dam, barrages, and water abstraction adversely affects gharial by turning suitable river habitats into marginal/ unsuitable lakes, and by altering the quantity andquality of water available to downstream river sections.
  • Gharial, with its long, toothy rostrum is particularly vulnerable to entanglement in fishing nets, where it is frequently trapped underwater and drowns. Entangled gharial are also commonly killed or have their rostrums chopped off to disentangle nets and perhaps, in retaliation for damaging nets.
  • River bed cultivation threatens gharial survival by alienating them from the terrestrial component of its habitat leading to desertion and Removal of sand from riverbanks disrupts gharial behaviour and may even force local populations to desert the area.
  • Sustained mining activity may destroy vital basking and nesting sites and may also result in direct mortality of eggs during the nesting season.


Chambal River —

  • Originating in the Vindhaya ranges in P. the Chambal River snakes its way thought the states of M.P. Rajasthan and U.P. before Yinally meeting the Yamuna in the Etawah district of U.P. Chambal is the only river in India, which has got status of a wildlife sanctuary.
  • About 400 km of Chambal river flowing in three states namely Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh passing through mud ravines extending up to 10 km on either such almost free of homo – sapiens, is full of wide varieties of birds and exotic and endangered animals such as gharials, crocodiles and fresh water dolphins.
  • The river is also home to smooth-coated   In all 146 species of resident and migratory birds have been recorded. Its rich bio-diversity ensured that it was declared a National Sanctuary in 1979 with its total area spanning across the three states of  M.P. Rajasthan & U.P.



  • Nawabganj Bird Santuary
  • Parvati Agra Bird Sanctuary
  • Saman Bird Sanctuary
  • Samaspur Bird Sanctuary
  • Sandi Bird Sanctuary


Sarsai Nawar Jheel:

  • Sarsai Nawar Jheel is a permanent marsh in the Etawah district of Uttar This typical wetland of the Indo-Gangetic floodplain is fed by precipitation run- off from the South West monsoon rains. It is an example of co-habitation of humans and wildlife: farming practices across most of the Site play important roles in sustaining the waterbird habitats.
  • A particular beneficiary is the vulnerable sarus crane (Grus antigone), with a population of 400 individuals making up the largest flock in the The Site’s name is derived from this large non-migratory crane. Other threatened species present include the critically endangered white-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis) and endangered woolly-necked stork (Ciconia episcopus).
  • The wetland is also a site of spiritual and religious significance with the nearby Hajari Mahadev temple visited by thousands of pilgrims each Droughts along with drainage have the potential to threaten the Site’s ecological character. It is recognized by Birdlife International as an Important Bird Area Sur Sarovar


Upper Ganga River

  • Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora Stretch). 08/11/05; Uttar Pradesh; 26,590 ha; 28°33’N 078°12’E. A shallow river stretch of the great Ganges with intermittent small stretches of deep-water pools and reservoirs upstream from barrages.
  • The river provides habitat for IUCN Red listed Ganges River Dolphin, Gharial, Crocodile, 6 species of turtles, otters, 82 species of fish and more than hundred species of birds.
  • Major plant species, some of which have high medicinal values, include Dalbergia sissoo, Saraca indica, Eucalyptus globulus, Ficus bengalensis, Dendrocalamus strictus, Tectona grandis, Azadirachta indica and aquatic Eichhorina.
  • This river stretch has high Hindu religious importance for thousands of pilgrims and is used for cremation and holy baths for spiritual purification. Major threats are sewage discharge, agricultural runoff, and intensive fishing. Conservation activities carried out are plantation to prevent bank erosion, training on organic farming, and lobbying to ban commercial fishing



  • This human-made wetland was formed in 1984 by the construction of the Madhya Ganga Barrage on a floodplain of the River Ganga. It is located within the boundaries of Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Haiderpur Wetland provides habitat for numerous animal and plant species, including more than 30 species of plants, over 300 species of birds including 102 waterbirds, more than 40 fish and more than ten mammal species.
  • This diverse habitat supports more than 15 globally threatened species, such as the critically endangered gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) and the endangered hog deer (Axis porcinus), black-bellied tern (Sterna acuticauda), steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis), Indian skimmer (Rynchops albicollis) and gold mahseer (Tor putitora). The Site supports more than 25,000 waterbirds, serves as a breeding site for the near-threatened Indian grassbird (Graminicola bengalensis) and provides refuge to the northern subspecies population of the vulnerable swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii) during its seasonal flood-driven migration. The Site also regularly supports more than 1% of the population of greylag goose (Anser anser) and bar-headed goose (Anser indicus).
  • Haiderpur Wetland also helps to support the livelihoods of the local communities, and contributes to the maintenance of hydrological regimes and to hazard It is used for recreation and tourism, and scientific and educational activities are also associated with the Site.



  • There are 59% population of the Uttar pradesh is employed by the agriculture sector.
  • In the financial year 2016-17, the contribution of primary, secondary and tertiary sector in the economy of Uttar Pradesh was 24%, 27% and 49% respectively.
  • Uttar Pradesh is the largest milk producing state in the country. The state’s share in the total milk production of the country is approximately 16.83 percent. During the financial year 2016-17, the state’s milk production was approximately 27.77 million tonnes.
  • In the financial year 2016-17, food grain production in the state was 49,144.6 thousand In the year 2016-17, its contribution in the country’s total grain production was about 17.83 percent.
  • In the year 2017-18, the state was the largest producer (28,226 thousand tonnes) of vegetables in India.
  • The average holding size of agriculture in Uttar Pradesh is 76 hectares which is less than the national average of 1.15 hectares.
  • The main food grains produced in the state includes rice, wheat, maize, millet, gram, peas and In the year 2017-18, pulses production in the state was 1,985 thousand tonnes.
  • Uttar Pradesh occupies the top position in the production of the following items; Wheat, Barley, Sugarcane, Potato and Lentils.
  • The following three districts are prominent producers of the mangoes in the state; Lucknow, Saharanpur and Bulandshahr.
  • Pratapgarh and Allahabad are the two biggest producer of the Amla in the Uttar Pradesh.
  • Shahjahanpur and Farrukhabad are the biggest producers of the guava in the state.
  • Barabanki is the largest producer of the opium in the Uttar Pradesh.
  • The Ghazipur district of the Uttar Pradesh has the only opium factory in the state.
  • The highest litchi production take place in the Saharanpur and Meerut districts of the Uttar Pradesh.
  • Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh is the highest producer of the orange in the state.
  • The most important cash crop of state is Sugarcane of Meerut district is considered to be the best.
  • Wheat is produced mainly in these districts of the state; Meerut, Bulandshahr, Saharanpur, Agra Aligarh, Muzaffarnagar, Moradabad, Etawah, Kanpur, Farrukhabad and Fatehpur.
  • The major rice producing districts of the state are as follows; Pilibhit, Saharanpur, Maharajganj, Deoria, Gonda, Bahraich, Basti, Rae Bareli, Ballia, Lucknow, Varanasi and Gorakhpur.





  • Sonbhadra is the first district in Uttar Pradesh
  • To employ the traditional ‘Taanka’ technique for Rainwater harvesting and water conservation.
  • Popular in the water-parched State of Rajasthan, Sonbhadra has replicated this practice and is in the Process of building more than 5,000 suck taankas And equal number of ponds across the water-starved District.
  • Taankas are underground rainwater storage Tanks up to the capacity of 25,000 This initiative Follows the standard rainwater harvesting technique Wherein rainwater from rooftops is collected through Gutters and then made to pass through a sieve before Being stored.
  • Use of taankas has helped the district Save enough water for lean summer months when The water demand is at its peak and supply invariably Falls This initiative is a marked departure from The temporary respite provided by water tankers and Is a significant step towards long-term sustainable Use of water resources in the district.



  • The Aspirational District of Bahraich has added a New dimension to imparting primary education by Roping in people from different fields to interact with The children of more than 400 Government Primary Schools.
  • Intellectuals of the society including Government officials, retired employees, teachers In schools and colleges, educated housewives as Well as youngsters, have joined this campaign in Large They spent at least an hour with the Kids every week.
  • The campaign has given extremely Positive results and volunteers are themselves Taking out time to teach the children. Providing a Forum to young ignited minds for interaction with Intellectuals, has also helped them in imbibing good Values and ethics from a young age.



  • Balrampur District Administration launched the ‘Padhe Balrampur, Badhe Balrampur’ campaign involving district officials, teachers, parents, students And members of the civil society to help spread awareness about the Importance of good education.
  • Parents of unschooled kids were motivated To send their kids to schools, as a result of which around 54,000 previously Out-of-school students got enrolled in schools with dramatic improvement In the attendance rates.
  • Similarly, Siddharthnagar District Administration launched the ‘Main Saksham Hoon’ campaign, specifically targeted at motivating parents to Send their kids to schools.



  • District(s): All Aspirational Districts of Uttar Pradesh (pictures are from Shrawasti)
  • Shrawasti in Uttar Pradesh has adopted BALA (Building as Learning Aid) which is an innovative Concept for teaching through child-friendly, learning And fun-based physical environment by building new Infrastructure or refurbishing the existing School and Anganwadi buildings.
  • The concept was originally Developed by Vinyas, Centre for Agricultural Research And Design with the support of BALA includes Development of the entire physical environment of the School – indoor, outdoor and semi-open spaces. It Is departure from the traditional thinking that School Buildings are only bricks and mortar units meant to Provide shelter and safe environment for teaching.
  • It leverages the physical space as a resource in the Teaching-learning process, for instance, using window- Grills to practically depict simple mathematical concepts Or using the classroom walls to colourfully represent Stories and vital information


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