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Sharm El-Sheikh Declaration- Investing in Biodiversity for People and Planet

– Signed on the occasion of the United Nations Biodiversity Conference, Sharm El-Sheikh,  Egypt, on 14th and 15th November 2018.

– Acknowledging that biodiversity, and the ecosystem functions and services it provides,  support all forms of life on Earth and underpin human health and well-being, economic  growth and sustainable development, including in the key economic sectors of energy and  mining, infrastructure, and manufacturing and processing, 

  • ISSUE: Increase in the human population, unsustainable consumption and production patterns, and rapid urbanization, projected over the coming decades will lead to significant demand for resources associated with these sectors, posing significant risks to biodiversity and consequent risks for human wellbeing.
  • It aims to recognize that the mainstreaming of biodiversity in these sectors is essential for achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the 2050 Vision of Living in Harmony with  Nature, as well as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 3 and the goals and objectives of other international agreements, Reaffirming that the 2030 Agenda for  Sustainable Development, and its set of integrated and indivisible Sustainable Development  Goals, provides a framework for the balanced pursuit of economic, social and environmental objectives and, consequently, for the mainstreaming of biodiversity.
  • Emphasizing that the meaningful participation of indigenous peoples and local  communities, women, youth, civil society, local governments and authorities, academia,  the business and financial sectors, and other relevant stakeholders are essential for the  mainstreaming of biodiversity,

– Also recognizing the role of good governance, and of science and traditional knowledge, for the mainstreaming of biodiversity considerations in all sectors;

1. Commit to working at all levels within our governments and across all sectors to  mainstream biodiversity, establishing effective institutional, policy, legislative and  regulatory frameworks tailored to national needs and circumstances and consistent  with international obligations, and incorporating an inclusive economic, social and  cultural approach with full respect for nature and human rights, through the following  actions:

(a) Integrate the multiple values of biodiversity in relevant legislative and policy  frameworks, development and finance plans and policy and decision-making processes at all levels, and encourage businesses to assess their dependencies and impacts on  biodiversity to inform decision-making;

(b) Apply best practices for timely strategic environmental assessments and environmental impact assessments, utilizing guidance adopted under the Convention, to  avoid or minimize impacts on biodiversity of key economic sectors;

(c) Utilize and further develop planning tools, such as integrated spatial planning, to consider all available options for achieving development needs, while avoiding or minimizing negative impacts on biodiversity;

(d) Phaseout or reform subsidies and other incentives that are harmful to biodiversity,  and create incentives aimed at mainstreaming biodiversity in key economic sectors;

(e) Expand dialogue and exchange experiences and best practices among all actors  involved in infrastructure development, including urban, transport and energy  infrastructure, enhance cooperation between cities and regions, and mainstream the  principles of healthy cities in urban planning, management, decision-making and  development; 

(f) Further develop communication, education and public awareness tools and messaging on the importance of conserving and sustainably using biodiversity to support  changes in behaviour and decision-making at all levels and in all sectors;

(g) Mainstream biodiversity and health linkages into policies, plans and strategies,  including national policies for health and national biodiversity strategies and action  plans, in line with the objectives of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and regional and national development agendas;

(h) Strengthen the development and application of ecosystem-based approaches to achieve climate change mitigation and adaptation and disaster risk reduction, and to  combat land degradation, while simultaneously contributing to the conservation and  sustainable use of biodiversity;

(i) Promote sustainable consumption and production and a circular economy to avoid  or minimize impacts on biodiversity from key economic sectors;

(j) Facilitate access to and transfer of relevant technologies, including biotechnologies, that contribute to the key sectors while avoiding or reducing negative impacts on  biodiversity;

(k) Develop and/or strengthen synergies among relevant multilateral environmental agreements;

2. Urge the development agencies, businesses, financial institutions and other  stakeholders to apply and support the above actions, as appropriate, and to use social  and environmental safeguards in decisions and investments to support the conservation  and sustainable use of biodiversity;


  • This short term plan is officially known as “Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011- 2020”.
  •  It is a ten-year framework for action by all countries to save biodiversity. ∙ This short term plan provides a set of 20 ambitious yet achievable targets,  collectively known as the Aichi Targets. 

Aichi Targets= 20 targets, divided into 5 sections (A to E):

Strategic goal A 

Address the causes of biodiversity loss 

1. Make people aware of the values of biodiversity 

2. Integrated biodiversity values in development + poverty reduction plan 3. Subsidies which are harmful to biodiversity and eliminate them, phase  them out or reform them 

4. Sustainable production and consumption. 

Strategic Goal B: 

Reduce the direct pressure on biodiversity and promote sustainable use

5. Reduce the rate of natural habitat loss + forest loss by at least 50% 6. Reduce overfishing

7. Agriculture, aquaculture and forestry in a sustainable manner

8. Reduce pollution and excessive use of fertilizer

9. Prevent invasive alien species (non-native)

10. Minimise the choral reflow destruction, ocean acidification

Strategic Goal C 

Safeguard ecosystems, species and genetic diversity 

11. Conserve terrestrial and inland water, coastal – marine areas

12. Prevent the extinction of threatened species

13. Maintain genetic diversity of agro-plants, domesticated animals and minimising  genetic erosion

Strategic Goal D 

Biodiversity benefits to all 

14. Safeguard ecosystems for women, tribals, and poor.

15. Combat desertification and restore the degraded ecosystem

16. Operationalise the Nagoya protocol on genetic resources, via national legislations

Strategic Goal E 

Participatory planning, capacity building 

17. National biodiversity strategy and action plans – update for participation 18. Integrate the knowledge of tribal communities

19. Scientific and technological knowledge sharing application

20. Financial resources mobilisation.


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