▪ One volcanic peak, ‘Soyamji’ (1860 metres) is situated in North Machhipura (Handwara) and the other ‘Kharewa’ peak lies in Tehsil Pehalgam, which is dead so far; the former, however, continued eruption of lava for about 13 months during 1934.

▪ There is a temple on this peak and many sulphur springs are found at the foot of the hill. These volcanic mountains are the cause of earthquakes in Kashmir.

▪ So far twelve devastating earthquakes have occurred in Kashmir. Of these the earthquake of 1885 was the most devastating. Hundreds of houses collapsed, thousands of people died and there were cracks in the earth as a result of this earthquake.


✓ The majority of the people of Jammu and Kashmir are engaged in subsistence agriculture of diverse kinds on terraced slopes, each crop adapted to local conditions. Rice, the staple crop, is planted in May and harvested in late September. Corn, millet, pulses (legumes such as peas, beans, and lentils), cotton, and tobacco are— with rice—the main summer crops, while wheat and barley are the chief spring crops.

✓ Many temperate fruits and vegetables are grown in areas adjacent to urban markets or in well- watered areas with rich organic soils. Sericulture

(silk cultivation) is also widespread. Large orchards in the Valley of Kashmir produce apples, pears, peaches, walnuts, almonds, and cherries, which are among the state’s major exports.

✓ In addition, the valley is the sole producer of saffron in the Indian subcontinent. Lake margins are particularly favorable for cultivation, and vegetables and flowers are grown intensively

in reclaimed marshland or on artificial floating gardens. The lakes and rivers also provide fish and water chestnuts.

✓ Cultivation in Ladakh is restricted to such main valleys as those of the Indus, Shyok, and Suru rivers, where it consists of small irrigated plots of barley, buckwheat, turnips, and mustard.

Plants introduced in the 1970s by Indian researchers have given rise to orchards and vegetable fields.

✓ Pastoralism—notably yak herding—long has been a vital feature of the Ladakh economy; breeding of sheep, goats, and cattle has been encouraged.

The Kashmir goat, which is raised in the region, provides cashmere for the production of fine textiles. Some Gujjar and Gaddi communities practice transhumance (seasonal migration of livestock) in the mountains. In addition to supplying pasture for the livestock, the mountains also area source of many kinds of timber, a portion of which is exported.

Popularly known as ‘Morel Mushrooms’ all across the world and Morchella Esculenta scientifically, ‘Gucchi Mushrooms’ are a variety of wild mushrooms found in the forests of Jammu and Kashmir.

• These cannot be cultivated commercially and they grow wildly in areas like Jammu and Kashmir, Kangra valley, Manali and some other parts of Himachal Pradesh. Locally, they are known as ‘guchhi’ or ‘gucchi’.

• Morel Mushrooms have a tremendous medicinal value due to the concentrated presence of Iron, Vitamins D & B apart from their highly antioxidant properties

• Gucchi Mushrooms also are known to be rich in proteins and other similar body-building nutrients.

• These Kashmiri Mushrooms are great in building immunity and also strengthening the liver of a human body.

• All these give morels a therapeutic nature that helps in reducing the chances of cancer, hypertension, and hyperglycemia.


The state has limited mineral and fossil-fuel resources,much of which are concentrated in the Jammu region. Small reserves of natural gas are found near the city of Jammu, and bauxite and gypsum deposits occur in the vicinity of Udhampur.



• IUCN status – Critically Endangered

• Hangul or kashmir red stag is a subspecies of the elk native to India.

• Kashmir stag is mainly found in the dense riverine forests of Kashmir Valley and the northern Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh.

• The kashmir red stag is found in Dachigam National Park, Sindh Valley, Rajparian wildlife sanctuary, Overa Aru wildlife sanctuary and in forests of Kishtwar and bhaderwah.

• The Hangul is the only surviving species of the Asiatic member of the red deer family.

• The society of Kashmir stag is matriarchal.

• Hangul has been listed under the schedule 1 of Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 and the Jammu and Kashmir Wildlife (Protection) Act 1978

• Threats : Habitat destruction, Overgrazing by the domestic livestock, Poaching

• IUCN status: Vulnerable

• The Himalayan black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus laniger) is a rare subspecies of the Asiatic black bear.

• They are diurnal by nature, though the majority of them have become nocturnal in order to avoid humans.

• Threats: The main threat is loss of habitat to agriculture, forestry, forest fires and housing with a resultant increase in conflict with humans. Poaching continues to be a serious problem.


• IUCN : Vulnerable

• Kashmir flycatcher is a small passerine bird in the flycatcher family of Muscicapidae. At one time it was considered to be a subspecies of the Red-Breasted Flycatcher, Ficedula parva.

• Kashmir Flycatcher is an insectivorous species. It breeds in the north-west Himalayan Mountain Range in India in the Jammu and Kashmir region of the Indian states.

• Kashmir Flycatcher is migratory and winters in the hills of central Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats Mountain Range of India.

• Kashmir Flycatcher breeds and habitats in deciduous forest with dense undergrowth.

• IUCN status : Critically Endangered

• The Himalayan brown bear is a species of brown bear found in the Northern Himalayan mountain ranges

• It is the largest carnivore in its habitat

• These bears hibernate intermittently during the winter months, they move into a self-made cave

• They are one of the most terrestrial of bears

• The Yeti legend is believed to have originated from the Himalayan black bear.

• IUCN Status: Least Concern

• Himalayan marmots are among the largest marmots in the world

• The Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana) is a marmot species that inhabits alpine grasslands throughout the Himalayas and on the Tibetan Plateau

• The Himalayan marmot lives in colonies and excavates deep burrows that colony members share during hibernation.


• IUCN status: Vulnerable

• The Kashmir flying squirrel (Eoglaucomys fimbriatus) is a species of rodent

• Small Kashmir flying squirrel (Hylopetes fimbriatus) is mainly confined to Himalayan moist temperate forest