VARANASI – CITY OF MUSIC
The renowned spiritual capital of India bears witness to a music heritage traced back to the Puranic literature, attributing the development of music to Shiva. Since being patronized by the tutelary head of the Maharajas of Kashi, the number of active music companies in the music sector has significantly increased to 300. Such support has also invigorated and created new impetus for Varanasi’s 350-year-old festivals.
Varanasi envisions creativity-led development as a bridge to sustain and revitalize its rich cultural heritage. Predominantly passed down through the festivals and fairs, tradition is embedded in the city’s cultural and spiritual life, and is inextricably linked with one of the most attended festivals; the Buddha Purnima Festival. This event gathers people together to celebrate the birth of Buddha through a wide range of performances, ranging from music to crafts and gastronomy. In addition, the Subah-e-Banaras Festival focuses on the power of music for enhancing inner well-being.
The protection and promotion of Varanasi’s music has been supported for centuries by the Guru- Shishya Parampara; a teacher-pupil traditional learning method, which became eroded over time. The city is committed to keep this tradition alive through the implementation of several grants schemes and educational training programmes. The flagship initiative is the on-going development of the Sangeet Sankul Music School, which focuses on the protection and promotion of musical traditions, as well as supporting the emergence of young talents.
As a Creative City of Music, Varanasi envisages:
- establishing the Sangeet Sankul Music School to protect and promote music traditions and knowledge, the Guru-Shishya Parampara method in particular;
- giving a new impulse to the 350-year-old city’s festivals of Gulab Bari, Budwa Mangal and Ramlila by nurturing multidisciplinary approaches and learning from experiences of other Creative Cities;
- using music as a driver of intercultural dialogue and mutual understanding through the Jugalbandi Fusion Interactions, focusing on jam sessions with musicians from diverse backgrounds; and supporting exchange schemes for music students of Creative Cities of Music to learn Guru-Shishya Parampara and share their own knowledge and experiences
CONTEMPORARY CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS
The Uttar Pradesh Tourism showcases its immense cultural diversity by organising a large number of festivals such as Taj Mahotsav (Agra), Ayurveda Mahotsav (Jhansi), Lucknow Mahotsav, Kajari Mahotsav (Mirzapur), Ganga Mahotsav (Varanasi) and Buddha Mahotsav (Kapilvastu, Kaushambi, Kushi Nagar, Sankisa, Sarnath, Shravasti).
Cultural Best Practices:
- The Peepal tree (Indian Fig Tree/Ficus religiosa) is found throughout India. In the scriptures, the Peepal is recognized as the tree of eternal life whose roots originate in heaven. Its branches spread on earth to bring munificence to mankind. It shelters bird life and offers a haven of safety to animals and human beings alike. The Peepal is also the mythical abode of spirits and ancestors.
- The Peepal leaf, when dried, becomes a tracery of veins and is often used for paintings of bookmarks
- The Peepal tree has acquired the status of sacredness since time immemorial on account of its utility and various stories woven around it.
- Plant of Devotion and Love:
- Tulsi plant is worshipped through-out India as a symbol of their love for Vishnu or It also has great medicinal qualities and is said to purify the atmosphere around the home.
- The planter In which it is grown is very decorative and is called Vrindavan, the village where Krishna was brought up. Tulsi leaves are used on every festive day and during sacraments. Tulsi Vivaha or the wedding of Tulsi, is the official start of the winter wedding season in India.
AGARIA TECHNIQUE OF IRON ORE MINING
- The technique involves processing iron ore in a low Shaft furnace built of clay
- Low quality iron ore is preferred over rich quality which may be available
- Ore is collected from the surface and never by digging
- Impurities removed through a unique gravitational process
- Sloping pan is made on the riverbank slightly above the water level and sand is laid on it
- Water is poured repeatedly to wash out the lighter siliceous particles, leaving the heavier black ore particles behind
- This ore is then collected and dried in the sun
- Iron smelting is charcoal-based
- Wood of Sal and Teak preferred (dead trees)
1. GORAKHPUR TERRACOTTA
- Terracotta or clay craft is clay based unglazed ceramic where the fired body is porous and red in color.
- It is a symbol of man’s first attempt at craftsmanship, just like invention of potter’s wheel to use power of motion for productive Terracotta has been used throughout the history for sculpture, pottery as well as bricks & roof shingles.
- Along with phallus shaped stones terracotta female figurines were uncovered in excavations of Mohanjodaro suggesting fertility cult & belief in mother goddess.
- 20th April 2020, a certificate for another GI Tag was granted on its highly appreciated handicraft ‘Gorakhpur Terracotta’ by the Registrar of Geographical Indication Registry.
- Terracotta has a simpler process of creating finished work and at a lower cost, as compared to other works.
- Refined clay is partially dried & cast, moulded or hand worked into desired After drying it thoroughly, it is placed in a kiln & fired. Then the hot ware is covered with sand to cool.
- Various other Terracotta works like tableware, sanitary pipes or building decorations in freezing environments require that material be glazed.
2. LUCKNOW CHIKAN CRAFT
- Chikankari is also known as shadow It is an intricate and elegant art of embroidery pursued with a needle on a fabric.
- The needlework requires time and patience, and that’s why the final product appears appealing.Chikankari embroidery features numerous patterns and designs of muree, lerchi, keelkangan and bakhiaIt is a delicate hand embroidery found on a large range of fabrics that include chiffon, muslin, silk, organza, net, cotton, etc.
- Earlier the fabrics were embroidered using white thread but in due course of time, coloured threads started being used to set a trend and keep it updated with modern tastes.
3. LUCKNOW ZARDOZI
- Lucknow is the primary centre for zardozi, and apparels featuring this embroidery can be found in well-known shops of Chowk area, as well as other bazaars in the In Persian, ‘zardozi’ means gold embroidery.
- The original process, which is known as “Kalabatun”, made use of silk threads wrapped in real gold or silver; the thread was subsequently sewn onto different fabrics, and then embellished with gold threads, spangles, seed pearls, wires, beads, sequins etc. In the times of the nawabs, zardozi was used to decorate tapestries and wall hangings
4. WOODEN HANDICRAFT OF SAHARANPUR
- Each wooden piece that is cut to make an item is subjected to a process of slow heating to draw out all moisture.
- Every single limb is separately carved and joined to the body with adhesive paste of tamarind seeds, and later passed through a coating of lime glue. The painting with colours is done by very fine precision with brushes made of goats hair. Water and oil colours are both used.
- Lacquering is done on a lathe, hand or is machine operated. For turning slender and delicate items, hand lathe is considered suitable.
- In the lacturney method, lac is applied in a dry state that is the lac stick is pressed against the woodenware to be While the latter keeps revolving, the heat generated by friction softens the lac, making the colour stick
5. CHUNAR BALUA PATTHAR
- More than 300 craftsmen are engaged in this work from the sandstone of Chunar in Mirzapur and After getting the GI status, policies are made to protect such products and promote the business of the product and its use in areas other than this area is strictly legal. Earlier Banarasi Sarees, Pink Meenakari, Hand Block Printing, Brocade, Mater Repository, Wooden Toys, Stone Under Cut Work, Mirzapur’s Panja Dari, Ghazipur’s Wall Hanging, Azamgarh’s Black Pottery have joined GI products
6. HANDMADE CARPET OF BHADOHI
- A prominent woven carpet is the hand-knotted carpet. This type of carpet is manufactured on a vertical wooden Thick cotton and woollen yarns are used in the warp ends while wool is used in the width direction.
- These looms are equipped with a double layer of warp ends separator rods and Designs depicting flowers, animals, gardens, trees and trellises are used in various hues and ways to liven up these floor coverings.
- The production process commences with the selection of woolen yarns which are generally bought from domestic and international circuits. The wool used in carpets varies according to the quality, design and style and so do the colours
7. VARANASI SOFT STONE JALI WORK
- Jali or fretwork is intricately carved on soft stone and its process requires supreme mastery of masonry and design making. The Varanasi soft stone jali work epitomizes both high skill and : superior quality of craftsmanship. Delicately chiseled and decorated with inlay work these elaborately carved jalis demand time in their making along with the skill and creativity of the masters.
- In Varanasi the jali craft work can be seen on forts, zamindari homes, places of worship and ancient monuments all of which are a testimony tr its antiquity. Statues of religious significance are also made using this technique. To further enhance the beauty of these sculptures they would be embedded with semi- precious stones and shell- work.
8. VARANASI WOODEN LACQUERWARE & TOYS
- Refer above in culture part
9. AGRA HANDMADE DURRIES
- Refer above in culture part
10. BANARAS METAL REPOUSSE CRAFT
- Refer above in culture part
11. VARANASI GLASS BEADS
- Refer above in culture part
12. GHAZIPUR WALL HANGINGS
- Refer above in culture part
13. BANARAS BROCADES & SAREE
- Refer above in culture part
14. SANTIPURI SAREE
- Shantipur has a history of being a seat of Sanskrit literature and Vedic learning dating back to the 9th century. India has a rich cultural heritage and the art of hand weaving formed its integral part.
- History has it that hand weaving was in existence In India for over five thousand and eight hundred years
- The famous Shantipuri saree, woven in a particular style, is till this day uniquely identified with the region, and can be considered one among the oldest varieties of the Indian handloom saree.
15. NIZAMABAD BLACK POTTERY
- The fancy pottery made in Nizamabad is famous in the World.
- The potters make tea-pots, sugar-bowls and other decorative articles. The earthen wares and statues of Gods and Goddesses particularly of Ganesh, Laxmi, Shiva, Durga and Saraswati are also made.
- These products are popular during fairs and This particular smooth black clay is plentifully available in the district.
- The black look is obtained by dipping the pot into the solution of clay and vegetable. After that for better look they use mercury, raanga and lead
16. BANARAS GULABI MEENAKSHI CRAFT
- Meenakari, also called enamelling, is the art of decorating a metal surface by fusing mineral substances on it. Meenakari was introduced into India by the Mughals.
- The process is often applied to kundan—articles of jewellery studded with gemstones set with a layer of gold foil between the stone and the mount on one side, while the reverse is lavishly enamelled using the meena technique.
- The lustre of the meena, the enamelled reverse side, increases over time due to contact with the wearer’s body and clothes. The brilliance of the diamonds and other stones is effectively complemented by the multihued enamel of the meena.
- Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh, is one of the oldest cities in India and has a very rich culture and history. It was the capital of the ancient Kashi region
17. KHURJA POTTERY
- Khurja is a traditional pottery work carried out in India it is a place located in Bulandshahr district in Uttar It is also called as ‘the ceramic town’.
- It is famous for its pottery work made by using material It is a handicraft product that is handmade and hand painted.
- Khurja pottery came from 500 years back at the time of Mughal emperor.
- Making of Khurja pottery involve certain steps which are as follows: 1) preparing the clay 2) clay molding 3) smoothening and painting 4) glazing 5) firing process.
- Khurja pots has various advantages its clay pots are good for cooking food it maintains the PH balance which make the food less acidic and cook the food with less oil and retains all the nutrients.
18. MEERUT SCISSORS
- The Meerut scissor hasn’t looked back since, with demand constantly outpacing Over 250 small-scale units employ over 70,000 people, both directly and indirectly. Men forge the scissors while women pack and check the quality of the products.
- Unlike most other scissors available in the market, the Meerut scissor is not a throwaway item as it is repairable and readjustable, while its blades can be resharpened as many times as required
19. MORADABAD METAL CRAFT
- Moradabad is known as the ‘Brass City’. The designs made on the brass products here display culture, heritage, history and diversity. The patterns and designs used for decorating these items are inspired from a variety of sources, varying from Hindu Gods and Goddesses to paintings of the Mughal Era. The district has domestic units as well as large industries engaged in the manufacture of metal goods. The work of washing, shaping and polishing handicraft metal items is carried out in the domestic units. The exporters in Moradabad have now begun to work with other metals like aluminium, stainless steel, iron etc.
20. FIROZABAD GLASS
- The artisans in this district are engaged in manufacturing glassware. They use a special traditional technique called ‘Mouth-Blowing’ for making various products such as lanterns, Christmas trees, kitchenware and various decorative items. Approximately 20,000 artisans make a variety of glassware in the district
21. FARRUKHABAD PRINTS
- Farrukhabad is known for its block printing (made of wood and brass). These blocks are used on various items including blanket covers, shawls, sarees, suits, scarfs, stoles The products made here are in demand not only in India but also in U.S., Brazil and several Asian and European countries
22. KANPUR SADDLERY
- The Kanpur saddlery industry grew rapidly during the periods of the world wars fulfilling the demands from various sections of the However, work slowly tapered off with the introduction of automobiles in the army.
- Years later, some of the big saddlery brands from Walsall in England which has traditionally been considered to be the world’s saddlery capital began to source products from Kanpur. The reason was very simple – rising costs forced saddlery makers in the West Midlands to outsource production to Kanpur in India and little did they know that one day Kanpur tanneries which are remnants of the British Raj will catch up with their former master and emerge as the world leader
- Premium harnesses and saddlery goods (horse riding and driving equipment) have been manufactured under the umbrella of small industries for over a hundred years in Kanpur. The saddlery industry is highly labour-intensive and 100 percent export-oriented. The best thing about the saddle industry is that it is pollution-free and does not harm the environment.
- The workers are involved in making the products by hand.
- Kanpur saddlery was awarded the Geographical Indication Tag (GI) in 2014.
1. ALLAHABAD SURKHA GUAVA
- One of the reasons for the Allahabad guava to be so delicious is the soil in which it is grown in the Kaushambi district.
- Guava is grown on an area of about 300 hectares in Doaba in Kaushambi district of undivided Allahabad. Here Muratganj and Chail block have been declared by the government as a fruit board.
- These two blocks alone account for 75 per cent of the horticulture occurring across the district.
- Allahabad Surkha Guava was given the Geographical Indication Tag (GI) in 2007– 08 for its sweet smell and irresistible taste.
2. KALANAMAK RICE
- There are almost hundreds of varieties of rice in India alone and one of them is Kala Namak rice.
- The rice also famously knows as “Buddha Rice” as it was found to be cultivated around the time of Gautam Buddha around 600 BCE.
- The rice was originally grown in the Terai belt of the state of Uttar Pradesh in and around the district of Siddhart Nagar, Sant Kabir Nagar, Maharajganj, Basti, Gonda, Gorakhpur, and Kushinagar.
- Kalanamak Rice Benefits to Farmers
- Organic Cultivation: Kala Namak Rice is usually grown without the help of fertiliser, pesticides, and thus is suitable for organic cultivation.
- Low factor Cost: Since the use of fertilisersand pesticides is non-existent the cost comes down and it becomes economical for the farmer.
- Better Yield: The rice provides 40-50% of more yield in the same area as compared to any variety of rice
- Disease Resistant: The most important factor is that the rice is highly resistant to several diseases such as stem rot and brown spot which makes the risk factor for a farmer while growing the crop very low.
- Health Benefits of Kalanamak Rice
- The rice contains antioxidants such as anthocyninwhich is useful in preventing heart disease and also helps in improving the health of the skin.
- It is rich in Iron and Zinc which are macronutrients and prevent Vitamin Deficiency.
- It has also been found helpful in regulating blood pressure and blood- related problems.
3. MANGO VARIETIES
- Malehibadi dasher mango
- Chausa and
4. ONE DISTRICT ONE PRODUCT
Social Link – Facebook, Twitter
Shaan Academy – Best Institute For IAS In Delhi